Early November Fire Potential for SoCal, South

Every year, fire season comes to an end in the Western US as winter weather creeps in.  The northern high elevation forests soak in autumn rains and significantly lower temperatures, and the focus of fire potential subsequently shifts to only a few targeted areas.  Because of significant drought this season and persistent high winds, that focus remains on two regions in particular:  Southern California and the Southern Appalachian Mountains.


Another Offshore Event for Southern California

The seemingly year-round fire season in Southern California trudges on as fire services in the area remain at summer staffing levels.  Long term drought is constantly a factor in these areas, and periodic offshore wind events bring occasional elevation of wildfire concern. This week will mark the fourth such wind event of the fall with a Santa Ana event arriving today and lasting into Thursday, prompting a Red Flag Warning. Coastal areas from Santa Barbara through Tijuana will see significant fire potential as a result. The offshore event will particularly impact San Diego and Riverside Counties where the winds will be strongest and humidity lowest.

Southern California will see High to Severe Fire Potential on November 9th and 10th

Southern California will see High to Severe Fire Potential on November 9th and 10th


Elevated Fire Potential for Southern Appalachian Mountains

The 60 day percent of normal rainfall map (below) highlights significant rainfall deficits running from east Texas eastward to the western Carolinas. As a result, the Southern Appalachian area of the Southeastern US is in Preparedness Level 5 (PL 5) and has issued a ‘Fuels and Fire Behavior Advisory’ through November 20th. The advisory warns that the areas with highest rainfall deficits have very dry surface fuels that will support significant fires in high risk fuel types when elevated or critical fire weather is present.

Critically dry fuels and rampant fire ignitions have been observed from the Florida panhandle through Alabama to the mountains in Tennessee and North Carolina. Due to the concerning conditions, fire activity is peaking in the region. There are currently 38 ongoing, uncontained large fires in the region, many with incident command teams actively suppressing or patrolling them. By December, the area’s fire activity is expected to drop back to normal levels as temperatures cool to mostly seasonal ranges. In the meantime, two more weeks of concern lie ahead.

Rainfall deficits fueling major fire activity in the Southern Appalachian Mountains & prompting PL 5 in Southern Area

Rainfall deficits fueling major fire activity in the Southern Appalachian Mountains & prompting PL 5 in Southern Area


 

Sources:

 NWS San Diego, CA

NIFC Predictive Services

Southern Fire Environment Outlook

SACC Morning Report

Fifty Year Anniversary of Loop Fire Tragedy

Loop Fire Recap

This week marks the anniversary of another infamous fire disaster. Two winters of below average rainfall, fuel moistures at critical levels, and multiple months of Santa Ana events lead to a historically unique Southern California autumn in 1966.  A faulty power line sparked a fire before dawn on November 1, 1966 near Slymar, CA in Los Angeles County (near 2016’s Sand Fire).  Abundant Santa Ana winds quickly drove the blaze to 2,000 acres around the steep terrain of Loop Canyon in the Angeles National Forest.  This past Tuesday saw the fifty year anniversary of the Loop Fire tragedy.

While the fire was seemingly under control, two crews entered steep terrain to help further contain the blaze and were surprised by an unexpected rapid flare up and chimney effect with little time for escape. A dozen hotshots of the 31-member crew perished that day. In remembrance, the Angeles National Forest (ANF) and the Cleveland National Forest (CNF) held a commemorative ceremony this week at the El Cariso Regional Park. Hundreds of firefighters were in attendance to remember the fallen. Several survivors spoke to an emotional and somber crowd, according to accounts from the event.

Tragedy in 60 Seconds

According to official reports conducted after the Loop Fire, at the time of the accident the fire was essentially out. It had burned for two thousand acres under the influence of Santa Ana winds, which had become significantly lighter by 2 pm when the El Cariso crew began working the fire. Rich Leak, a surviving crew member described their assignment as “to cold trail the fire’s edge down the ridge line and tie into the County Crews at the bottom.” According to Leak, little fire activity was observed in the area as it appeared there were no active flames on the ridge line they would be working.  He even stated that their main concern while working on the steep mountainside was danger from rocks and rockslides rather than the fire itself.

In attempting to construct a fire line, the crew reached a point on the ridge where following the fire’s edge became unsafe and almost impossible in the steep terrain. Their crew boss “made the decision to cut an indirect line and tie into the dozer line at a different location.” As they moved into this secondary location, “a spot fire started in the ravine below us and all hell broke loose.” Leak eerily likened the moments that followed to being on a charcoal grill, with lighter fluid igniting at once with a “whoosh”, and fast moving shockwave-like flames ensuing.

The official investigation concluded that the crew experienced 30-60 seconds of 2500 degree heat without fire shelters or proper PPE (fire resistant clothing). Ten members of the crew lost their lives in those 60 seconds and two more died later in the hospital due to the burnover. Fifteen of the 19 surviving crew members were also injured by the flash of flames.

The Loop Fire memorial marker in El Cariso Park in Sylmar, CA. (Photo Credit: Stuart Palley)

The Loop Fire memorial marker in El Cariso Park in Sylmar, CA. (Photo Credit: Stuart Palley)

Lessons Learned

In firefighting, sometimes lessons are learned in harsh ways. The explosive Loop Fire accident has led to a clearer understanding of the perils posed by narrow and steep canyons, and how with the slightest change in weather, such canyons can have dangerous chimney-like effects on fire behavior. The official disaster report from the Loop Fire suggested changes in safety protocols still used today when fighting fires in such terrain:

  • Require the use of lookouts and open communication lines (radios).
  • Provide a checklist for downhill line operations.
  • Make “crystal clear” the dangers of working in box canyons and potential chimney fire situations.
  • Standardize equipping all crew members on the fire line with lightweight safety gear and fire protective shelters.

In the wake of the fire, great attention was paid by the wildfire community to the study of fire behavior and methods to predict when and where fire behavior will change rapidly.


Source(s):

Pasadena Star News

WLF Always Remember

Colorado Fire Camp

Personal account from Captain Rich Leak

Wildfire Today

Fault Connection Reveals Risk to Bay Area

Newly-discovered Fault Connection

It has been 27 years since the 6.9-magnitude Loma Prieta earthquake on the San Andreas fault rattled the San Francisco Bay Area, killing 63, injuring over 3,700, and famously interrupting that year’s World Series.  Four scientists with the United States Geological Survey have recently discovered a connection between two fault lines under the Bay that were previously believed to be unlinked, revealing a fault connection they say could lead to an even larger future earthquake.

Underwater surveys conducted in shallow portions of the northern San Francisco Bay discovered a section of the Hayward Fault that connects to the western segment of the Rodgers Creek Fault.  The Hayward Fault extends for 62 miles from San Jose to San Pablo Bay, passing directly under the densely-populated urban areas of Berkeley and Oakland.  The Rodgers Creek fracture runs north from the bay, 56 miles through the heart of wine country.

The worry is that the 188-mile connection between the two faults will make the effects of a rupture along either fault more intense and impact substantially more people.


7 million Could Be Drastically Affected

Explained in detail in a recent journal article, the study is the first evidence that the two major faults are linked. The fault connection discovery was published in the October 19th edition of the journal Science Advances. The USGS team led by Janet Watt stated that the next major earthquake to the strike the Bay Area will likely come from the (now-connected) Hayward and neighboring Rodgers Creek faults. The scientists used integrated geophysical interpretation and kinematic modeling to show that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults are directly connected at the surface (in San Pablo Bay), and the coinciding geometric relationship has significant implications for earthquake dynamics and seismic hazard.

They argue that the discovered link enables a simultaneous rupture along their combined 188 miles, potentially producing a quake as large as 7.4 in magnitude–five times stronger than the Loma Prieta event. According to their findings, the worst case scenario event would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact. An estimated 7 million people could be drastically affected.

 

Maps showing the Hayward and Rodgers Creek fault connection

Maps showing the Hayward and Rodgers Creek fault connection


Sources:

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/10/e1601441

http://www.theverge.com/2016/10/19/13335816/earthquake-faults-san-francisco-oakland-bay-area-san-andreas-hayward

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1989_Loma_Prieta_earthquake

Ten of Our Favorite Wildfire Videos

Following our blog post on how the story of the Esperanza Fire west of Palm Springs is being made into a feature film, we thought we’d point you to ten of our favorite wildfire videos and documentaries from the past few years. Like many wildfire experts, our favorite videos include exciting footage from the fire line showing not only the true power, danger, and humbling awesomeness of a wildfire, but also the courage and skill displayed by the men and women who fight it.

We’re fascinated by time-lapse videos as they showcase fires moving and large smoke columns building. We also enjoy some of the great documentaries made in recent years, many of which cover topics ranging from the history of fighting fires to profiles of the brave wildland crews who work tirelessly to protect life and property. We’re also advocates of a series of excellent informational videos on fire science and defensible space created by Jack Cohen, one of the preeminent researchers in the wildfire industry.


Footage from the front lines

Rim Fire Flight

Amazing lead plane flight along the uncontrolled head of the Rim Fire in the Yosemite area.

 

Geronimo Hot Shots

Awesome GoPro footage of hand crews in the field. 

The Atlantic’ Documentary on them: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=106tOoXVsxQ

 

Erskine Damage Drone Footage

Terrible devastation this summer in the Lake Isabella are in Kern County where 309 structures were burned. 

 

Fort McMurray Fire Escape

The video shows residents fleeing the Fort McMurray Fire early in May. The fire burned almost 1.5 million acres and destroyed 2,400 structures.


Time-Lapse Videos

Waldo Fire (Colorado Springs, CO 2012)

 

Pyrocumulous Rey Fire (Santa Barbara County, CA 2016)

 

Soberanes Fire (Big Sur, CA 2016)


Wildfire History

The Big Burn

At a runtime of 45 minutes, this documentary on the major fires of 1910 in Montana highlights the start of the United States Forest Service and wildland firefighting as we know them today. 


Fire Science

Radiant Heat vs. Firebrands

 

Your Home Can Survive a Wildfire

 

Ten Year Anniversary of Esperanza Fire Tragedy

Esperanza Fire Recap

This week marks ten years since the tragic Esperanza Fire in California’s Riverside County. The fire started at the base of Cabazon Hill west of Palm Springs around 1:11 a.m. on October 26th, 2006. Moderate Santa Ana conditions quickly pushed the fire uphill and to the west prompting a large mutual aid response. Five United States Forest Service (USFS) Engines (including Engine 57) were some of the first to respond from the San Jacinto Ranger District and were quickly assigned to structure protection in the rural mountain community of Twin Pines.  At approximately 7:15 a.m., five wildland firefighters from USFS Engine 57 were overrun by the fire protecting an isolated, vacant residential structure.

EsperanzaPhoto

Tragedy in Twin Pines

At the time of the accident, the fire was several hundred acres in size and burning rapidly in critically dry fuel, under the influence of Santa Ana winds. A Red Flag Warning was in place for the area, issued twenty hours prior to the accident. A March 2006 Wildfire Protection Plan rated the Twin Pines community’s Fire Threat as Extreme to Very High. Additionally, the “Octagon” house they were protecting was located at the head of a steep drainage and, according to a 2002 study, was given a defensibility rating as “non-defensible”.

Officials later determined that the combination of wind alignment, fuel susceptibility, topography of the steep drainage below the firefighters’ location, and a thermal uplifting at daybreak caused a sudden and intense fire run. Many contributing factors led to their demise, but ultimately the five firefighters were surrounded by fire incredibly quickly, without time for escape, and were fatally burned by it. The Esperanza Fire totaled 40,200 acres and 34 residences burned, continuing for another few days after that fateful morning.

Accident Aftermath

In the wake of the accident, a few investigations ensued, aiming to determine the causal and contributing factors as well as the criminal intent of the fire’s origin itself. A full investigation of the burnover found two main causal factors:

  1. There was a loss of situational awareness concerning the dangers associated with potential fire behavior and fire environment while in a complex wildland urban interface situation.
  2. The decision by command officers and engine supervisors to attempt structure protection at the head of a rapidly developing fire either underestimated, accepted, and/or misjudged the risk to firefighter safety.

Arson investigators found the fire’s ignition was an act of arson by a Raymond Lee Oyler, a nearby Beaumont resident and serial arsonist. The individual “was convicted March 6 (2009) of five counts of first-degree murder, 20 counts of arson and 17 counts of using an incendiary device. A jury called for the death penalty.” This was the first and only time an arsonist has been convicted of first degree murder.

Ten days after the event, a public memorial service was held in Devore, CA for the five firefighters lost. Subsequently, California Highway 243 through the Cabazon Hills was named a memorial highway in honor of the fallen firefighters. The site of the accident will remain unoccupied and serve as a permanent remembrance memorial. A book was written by John McClean outlining the events of the Esperanza fire tragedy (as well as other fires). The critically-acclaimed book has been picked up by Legendary Pictures for adaptation for a future film.

Memorial Plaque at the site of the Esperanza Fire accident

Memorial Plaque at the site of the accident


Source(s):

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esperanza_Fire

http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jun/06/local/me-oyler6

http://www.coloradofirecamp.com/esperanza/narrative.htm

http://www.fire.ca.gov/fire_protection/downloads/esperanza_00_complete_final_draft_05_01_2007.pdf

Earthquake Preparation – Be Ready for the Next Big One

Nearly half the population of the United States is exposed to a risk of a damaging earthquakes. The US Geological Survey recently released a report outlining the increased probability of a large earthquake impacting California, and there has been a dramatic increase in human-induced earthquakes across the central United States. This increased risk has further highlighted the importance of earthquake preparation.   Earthquakes rarely give any advanced warning, therefore the key to surviving a major sesmic event is to be prepared. Every year on the third Thursday of October, the Great ShakeOut event aims to help facilitate this preparation.

Earthquake Preparation is Key to Survival

Founded in 2008 by the USGS , the Great ShakeOut began in California and now boasts participants in 45 states and more than 70 countries.   The ShakeOut is a regionally organized event used to simulate a mock earthquake event.  At a specified time, participants envision a major earthquake occurring and practice the “drop, cover and hold on” drill.

earthquake preparation drill

Drop, Cover and Hold On!

Drop to the ground, find a sturdy object such as a desk or table to crawl under, and hold on until the shaking stops.  If no cover can be found, the drill recommends individuals find an interior wall and protect their head and neck with their arms.

In the ShakeOut event, participants “hold on” for 60 seconds and use this time to scan their surroundings. While scanning, individuals imagine what damage may be occurring as a result of the quake.  What heavy objects have the potential to fall and cause injury? What damage may be occurring to structures due to the violent shaking? Will there be a way to escape the impacted area after the quake?

The ShakeOut drill helps to generate awareness of potential dangers in the home, school and workplace.  This awareness leads to better planning and mitigation which are essential for survival and recovery after a major earthquake. The Earthquake Country Alliance recommends these four steps to help be better prepaped before the next earthquake occurs.

4 Step Plan to Become More Earthquake Safe

1:  Secure your space.

2:  Plan to be safe.

3:  Organize disaster supplies. 

4:  Minimize Financial Hardship

Learn More

To learn more about earthquakes and how to prepare for them, visit these informative websites:

ShakeOut.org. The central website for the ShakeOut event also has a wealth of additional resources.  The website contains information on how to hold drills suited for different environments, as well as specific safety recommendations for people with disabilities.

EarthquakeCountry.org. ECA provides information and resources to help improve preparedness, mitigation and resiliency for everyone who lives, works, or travels in earthquake prone areas.

US Geological Survey.  The USGS Hazards website houses information on real-time seismic activity and information on earthquake prone areas, in addition to may other tools to help monitor the causes and effects of earthquakes.

Ready.gov.  Official website of the Department of Homeland Security which has a section on earthquake specific emergency preparedness.

Junkins Fire in Custer County, Colorado

Junkins Fire Summary

The Junkins fire started early Monday morning (10/17) in the Junkins Park area of Custer County Colorado during Red Flag Warning conditions. The fire exhibited extreme fire behavior due to dry conditions and 70 mph wind gusts.  Officials moved to evacuate homes in the immediate fire path as the fire quickly burned to over 15,000 acres as of 1:30 pm today (10/18). A type-1 incident management team has been ordered and is expected to take over command of the fire tomorrow morning (10/19/2016).

Junkins Fire Perimeter Map

The Junkins Fire perimeter as of October 18, 2016

Fire Outlook

Officials expect fierce winds to continue through tonight, but the fire’s growth has slowed as firefighters focus on structure protection and building containment lines. There has been some significant progress made on the north side of the fire, and fire officials are hopeful to stop forward progress of the north front overnight. There are four air tankers, seven helicopters, and 115 firefighters on scene, with more resources on the way.

Example Fire Facts

  • As of: October 18th, 2016
  • Location: 11 miles east of Westcliffe, CO
  • Size: 15,751 acres
  • Containment: 0%
  • Fire Behavior: Rapid fire spread through conifers, aspen and grass.
  • Structures Threatened: 281 (reported)
  • Structures Destroyed: 7 (2 homes and 5 outbuildings)
  • Evacuations: 250 homes are under mandatory evacuation and 3,500 homes are in a pre-evacuation status.
  • Incident Page: http://inciweb.nwcg.gov/incident/5071/
  • News Article: The Gazette

Twelve Weeks Later: Soberanes Fire 100% Contained

Soberanes Fire Recap

The Soberanes Fire in northern California has finally wound down, with officials marking the blaze at 100% contained as of Wednesday evening (10/12).  The fire ignited from an illegal campfire on July 22nd–a full twelve weeks ago–and in the first week, destroyed 57 residences and 11 outbuildings.  Luckily, no other losses have been reported since then.


How Soberanes Compares to Other Fires

The progress of the fire has been mostly stalled for weeks, with fire crews focusing on building containment lines in the troublesome and rugged terrain of the Ventana Wilderness (LPF).  Subsequently, the fire perimeter and acreage has not budged much since late September.  Collectively, the fire has topped a record $250m in suppression costs, dwarfing the previous high from 2002 of $165m (Biscuit Fire). The Soberanes Fire finished its run at 132,127 acres which is good for 17th place in California’s documented history and 6th largest ever in the Los Padres National Forest. The sheer size of the wildfire is apparent in comparison to both the San Francisco Bay Area and New York City.

Soberanes Fire size comparison with SF and NYC

Soberanes Fire size comparison with NYC and SF


Soberanes Fire Facts (10/14)

  • Started: July 22nd, 2016
  • Contained: Oct 12th, 2016 (83 days)
  • Location:  Big Sur, CA
  • Size: 132,127 acres
    • 94,933 acres CA-LPF – 72%
    • 37,194 acres CALFIRE BEU – 28%
  • Containment: 100%
  • Fire Behavior: Interior smoldering with sporadic smoke possible.
  • Structures Threatened: 0
  • Structures Destroyed: 68 (57 primary, 11 outbuildings)
  • Cost to Date: $249.9+ million
  • Incident Page: Inciweb
  • News Article: KSBW News


IMT Assignments

Since the blaze began, seven different incident management teams have been assigned to the storied fire (see list below). California’s IMT2 (Mills) team is expected to see out the remaining 21% of suppression repair and continue to BAER (Burned Area Emergency Response) operations.  The full list of IMTs assigned to Soberanes:

  • CAL FIRE Team 4 IC (Derum) taking command on 07/23/2016 at 1200
  • CAL FIRE IMT (Derum) in unified command with CA IMT1 (von Tillow) on 08/05/2016
  • CA IMT1 (von Tillow) in unified command with CAL FIRE IMT (King BEU) 08/19/2016 at 0600
  • CA IMT1 (von Tillow) transferred command to AK IMT1 (Kurth) @ 0700 8/24/2016, No more unified command
  • CA IMT1 (Opliger) will transition on 09/13/2016 at 0600
  • CA IMT2 (Arroyo) assumed command of incident 09/29/2016 at 0800
  • CA IMT2 (Mills) will assume command 10/13/2016 at 0600

Sources:

Inciweb

NIFC

KSBW News

Wildfire 101: Modern Warning Systems

In the United States, effective systems are in place to help us plan for, respond to, evacuate from, and cope with dangerous and difficult emergency events.  Traditionally in the late twentieth century, mass media (television and radio) were relied upon to inform the general public of impending or ongoing dangerous situations. Previously, older technology like sirens were utilized for warning of impending situations, especially severe weather. While all are still prevalent today, much of the public were left uniformed if not within nearby proximity to one of these alert platforms. Today we have many more options at our disposal.

Modern Warning Systems

In June 2006, following criticism over the government’s response to Hurricane Katrina, President George W. Bush signed Executive Order 13407, ordering the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a new program to integrate and modernize the nation’s existing population warning systems. Installment began on a nationwide system now known as the Integrated Public Alert and Warning System, or IPAWS.  IPAWS is an alert and warning infrastructure that allows Federal, State, and local authorities to alert and warn the public about serious emergencies using the Emergency Alert System (EAS), Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA), and other public alerting systems from a single interface.

EAS is used to send emergency messages through cable, broadcast, and satellite television, as well as landline phone recordings. WEA refers to messages, similar to text messages, which appear as a notification to your mobile phone. They are sent by an authorized government authority through your mobile provider. Registration is not required for the national alerts through IPAWS, but a compatible phone and provider are required. The message contains information such as the type of alert, the time of the alert, the issuing agency, and any steps the recipient should take. The types of alerts include AMBER alerts for child abductions, extreme weather alerts, Presidential alerts during a national emergency, or other threatening emergencies in your area. Who receives the alerts is based on connectivity to the affected area’s cellular towers, so the alert is determined by the current location of the cellular device and not the address of the wireless phone owner. Of course, the benefit of this is if you are away from home and an emergency occurs in the area you are visiting, you will still receive the alert through the local cellular tower.

Reverse 911 is widely used for local emergency situations to be broadcast to email, home, and mobile phones

Reverse 911 is widely used for local emergency situations to be broadcast to email, home, and mobile phones

Other Alert Systems

Many local government agencies have additional alert services that offer greater detail to local emergencies through recorded messages, text alerts, or emails. In order to take full advantage, make sure to check local emergency services options (such as Reverse 911). Often, a registration process is required before you will receive the alerts. Similarly, other modern alert systems allow for notifications of other local emergency situations that also could prompt action.  A few examples:

  • PulsePoint is a mobile application which connects the local dispatch system with CPR-trained bystanders (and the location of the closest AED) regarding a nearby cardiac emergency event… effectively enabling “citizen superheroes.”
  • Google’s ‘Waze’ mobile app is a social-mapping-based means of reporting real-time accidents and traffic alerts.
  • The Incident Paging Network has also proven to be a useful tool for being alerted regionally within the network for a wide range of event types.
  • Here at RedZone we especially appreciate the advent of public alert and advance warning regarding an impending or ongoing disaster. Our RZAlerts are built on the success of this premise.

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_Public_Alert_and_Warning_System

fema.gov/integrated-public-alert-warning-system

Hurricane Matthew Brings Dangerous Conditions to the Coast

Hurricane Matthew Update:  October 7, 2016.

Hurricane Matthew continues to push north paralleling the east coast of Florida.  The storm has yet to make landfall, but powerful wind gusts of over 100 mph have downed trees and caused power outages for nearly 1,000,000 people.  Bands of heavy rain currently stretch as far north as South Carolina with flash flooding likely across the lowland areas.  The hurricane has been reduced to a category 2 storm, staying just offshore, but the threat of storm surge flooding remains a critical concern.

Hurricane Matthew

Hurricane Matthew predicted path, as shown in the RZAlert Dashboard.

Unease Growing Over Storm Surge

The storm is currently off the northeast coast of Florida, dousing the coastal town of Jacksonville.  Storm surge flooding combined with heavy rain has already effected much of northeast Florida and Georgia, with–maybe–the worst conditions  yet to come.

In St. Augustine (FL), flooding preceded the storm inundating much of the city’s historic downtown with knee-deep water.  The storm surge in St. Augustine is projected to top 8 feet in some places as the water continues to rise. Nearby, the city of Jacksonville fears for an unprecedented event, warning residents of the potential for catastrophic damage. Officials are expecting storm surges as high as 9 feet and residents began evacuating days ago. According to the city’s mayor, anything over 3 feet is life-threatening.  A major tropical storm has not impacted the city of Jacksonville in over a century.

Charleston Susceptible

Fears are also mounting for the Charleston area where the eye-wall is projected to potentially center itself over the Coastal Carolina city come Saturday morning. Officials are worried the flood levels could be near or even surpass those experienced in the October 2015 flood event which set historic records in terms of damage and lives lost.  The nowCoast™ modeling of the potential storm surge by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shows dangerous conditions far inland due to the numerous inlets and intercostal waterways. Interestingly, the storm is projected to move clockwise away from the Southeastern US coast and curl back around toward Cuba. Time will tell what else this storm has in store for an area that has historically escaped major hurricane impact.

Hurricane

Storm surge forecast for Charleston, NC.

Sources:

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/heres-hurricane-matthew-might-cause-worst-flooding/?utm_content=buffer1cf9c&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

https://weather.com/storms/hurricane/news/hurricane-matthew-bahamas-florida-georgia-carolinas-forecast

https://weather.com/news/news/south-carolina-historic-flood-rainfall-record-extreme

http://www.cnn.com/2016/10/07/us/hurricane-matthew-florida/